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2nd International Conference on Vaccine Research, will be organized around the theme “Recent Advancements in Vaccination & Antibiotics Application ”
European Vaccine 2019 is comprised of keynote and speakers sessions on latest cutting edge research designed to offer comprehensive global discussions that address current issues in European Vaccine 2019
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Vaccines are the most important biological preparations that can provide active acquired immunity against a particular disease. It consists of disease causing microorganism (like bacteria, viruses) or their disease causing substances. There are many kinds of vaccines like Recombinant Vaccines, Live Attenuated Vaccines, Inactivated Vaccines, Subunit Vaccines, Toxoid Vaccines, and Conjugate Vaccines etc., which can provide the immunization in different manner. Therefore, vaccination is very important process that one should take to be healthy and free from the diseases in future.
Vaccines are prepared to provide the protection against different kinds of viral diseases like hepatitis, viral cancer, MMR, poliomyelitis, influenza etc., different kinds of bacterial diseases like anthrax, diphtheria, tetanus, tuberculosis, typhoid, cholera and many more. Nowadays parasitic malarial vaccines and non-infectious disease vaccines like DNA vaccines for preventing tumor and allergy are also available. These molecular preparations play very important role to boost the immune system.
Plant disease and insect attacks are the significant causes of crop production losses. Plant vaccination is the new approach to protect the crops from the targeted pathogen by spaying double-stranded RNA molecules having similarities with that pathogen’s RNA. Therefore, a novel vaccine can replace the pesticides without putting environment, humans and organisms at risk. Plants are able to produce different classes of proteins having pharmaceutical significance at a high yield that leads to produce low-cost products. Development of plant-derived vaccines against influenza viruses, ebola viruses, rabies virus, flaviviruses and more is the promising avenue in this field.
Vaccinations of animals are very important for preventing their diseases and the transmission of diseases to humans. Livestock animals and pets should be routinely vaccinated. Different kinds of veterinary vaccines are there like canine vaccines, feline vaccines, vaccines for dogs, poultry vaccines and more.
Vaccination plays an important role for both maternal and neonatal health conditions. It is so beneficial for women to be immunized to reduce chances of morbidity and mortality from vaccine-preventable diseases. Some vaccines should be given to mother before pregnancy, some during pregnancy and some post pregnancy. Neonatal vaccination is the lifetime opportunity to initiate the early protective response against infectious diseases like polio, smallpox etc.
Cancer vaccines can treat existing cancer (therapeutic cancer vaccines) and prevent development of cancers. Some vaccines are autologous or patient specific. Many cancers are caused by oncoviruses like HPV, hepatitis B and also by oncobacteria like Helicobacter pylori. Nowadays, approved oncovaccines like oncophage, Sipuleucel-T are used in many countries for cancer immunotherapy.
Basically three types of vaccination strategies are used to give vaccines such as pulse vaccination strategy (repeatedly vaccinating over a defined age range), ring vaccination (vaccinating only those who are most likely to be infected) and cocooning (giving booster vaccines to mothers, family members to protect new-born babies becoming infected by them).
Vaccine trial or clinical trials are required for the safety and efficacy of the vaccines. Four different phases of trials are present in trial methodology as phase one, phase two, phase three and phase four.
Different types of viral, bacterial, parasitic and non-infectious disease vaccines are under research at present time like zika, adenovirus, hepatitis c, leprosy, chagas disease, Alzheimer’s disease and so on.
Antibiotics are the most important antimicrobial agents for fighting against bacterial, fungal activities or infections. Three types of antibiotics are found as natural antibiotics which are produced by natural microorganisms via fermentation, semi-synthetic antibiotics that can be prepared by using natural fermentation process with chemical combination and synthetic antibiotics which are completely prepared in laboratory synthetically.
The resistance of bacteria or microbes to antibiotics is very common phenomenon. Though survival of microbe results from an inheritable resistance but the growth of resistance to antibiotics also occurs through horizontal gene transfer, which is more likely to occur for frequent antibiotic use. Antibacterial-resistant strains and species are called superbugs in some cases like E. coli bacteria superbug, multidrug-resistant tuberculosis.
Due to antimicrobial resistance phenomenon, some infectious microbes become untreatable. Various efforts have been made to develop the next generation antibiotics with novel action mechanisms which can combat against the multi-drug resistant strains of microbes. Recently, symbiotic bacteria are also used to produce antibiotics against MDR strains like odilorhabdins (ODLs).