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When a Vaccine is injected into the body is called as Vaccination. The reaction of the body after administration of vaccine is Immunization. The vaccine stimulates the immune system, recognizes the diseases, protects the body from infection and prevents the spread of diseases to others. Actually, the Vaccination and Immunization meanings are not same but they are often used interchangeably.

Human vaccines are used for infectious diseases in order to increase the immunization rate in host organism and helps in preventing the disease from the population. Shingles vaccines are used for eradicating the painful skin rash. There are many immunization schedules regarding preventing infectious diseases in infants and adults. DNA vaccines are used to treat non infectious diseases like allergy and cancer.

Vaccines protect both pregnant women and their baby from vaccine preventable diseases. Killed viruses vaccines can be given during pregnancy. Live viruses vaccines are not preferred for pregnant women. Mainly the pregnant women need to get vaccinated against the flu and whooping cough. In case of travelling abroad recommended vaccines are Hepatitis A and Hepatitis B vaccines. Some of the vaccines which is not preferred during pregnancy are Chickenpox (Varicella) vaccine, Measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine and Shingles (Varicella-zoster) vaccine.

Vaccine teaches the body’s immune system to recognize and defend against harmful bacteria or viruses. Vaccines given before infected are known as preventive vaccines. Examples of preventive vaccines are such as polio, chicken pox, measles, mumps, rubella, influenza, hepatitis A and B, HPV. Actually vaccine does not exist for HIV but scientists are working to develop vaccine for HIV/AIDS. Vaccine for HIV can be either preventive or therapeutic.

A vaccine made from dead or weakened germs contains natural adjuvants and help the body to produce a strong protective immune response. Due to adjuvants vaccines work effectively. Nowadays, vaccines contain small components of germs such as their proteins instead of entire bacteria or virus. From 1930s aluminum gels or aluminum salts are used as ingredients in vaccines. Due to addition of small amount of aluminums in vaccines, body builds stronger immunity against germs.

Patients with safe immune mediated inflammatory diseases (IMID), for example, RA, IBD or psoriasis, are at expanded danger of contamination, in part as a result of the disease itself, however for the most part in view of treatment with immunomodulatory or immunosuppressive medications. Regardless of their raised hazard for antibody preventable disease, immunization inclusion in IMID patients is shockingly low. Notwithstanding their raised hazard for antibody preventable ailment, inoculation inclusion in IMID patients is shockingly low. Clinical proof shows that inoculation of IMID patients doesn't build clinical or research facility parameters of illness action. Live antibodies are contraindicated in immunosuppressed people, yet non-live immunizations can securely be given.

Immunotherapy is a method that involves in hindering or enhancing of the immune system. Immunotherapy is a type of cancer treatment and it is also called as biologic therapy. It is a type of treatment that uses substances made from living organisms to treat cancer. Types of immunotherapy used to treat cancer are such as Immune checkpoint inhibitors, T-cell transfer therapy, Monoclonal antibodies and Immune system modulators. Immunotherapy can be administered via Intravenous, Oral, Topical and Intravesical.

Veterinary vaccines are most powerful tools in keeping animals healthy and also protecting public health. Examples of such type of vaccines are rabies vaccines and rinderpest vaccines. In spite of human vaccines, animal vaccines can be developed and licensed quickly. Veterinary vaccines increase safe food supplies and preventing animal to human transmission of infectious diseases. To improve new advancements and technologies in veterinary vaccines there should be continuous interaction between animal and human researchers and health professionals.

While travelling, getting vaccinated will keep you safe and healthy. Travelling to some countries require proof of vaccination for certain diseases like yellow fever or polio. In case of pregnant women, additional vaccines are needed to protect from ongoing illness or weakened immune system. It is required to get vaccinated at least 4-6 weeks before you travel.

Vaccines are biological pharmaceutical products which are used for prevention of hypothetical infection. Development of new vaccine involves several stages of long process. Safety of vaccines is important in all developmental phases. Preclinical trial is completed in lab measures and on animals. Clinical trial is at which the antibody is tried in people. It covers four phases of clinical trials from phase I to phase IV.

Bioterrorism is a biological attack which intentionally releases viruses, bacteria or other germs that can kill or sicken people, livestock or crops. With bioterrorism diseases like measles, influenza, avian flu, smallpox, plague and hemorrhagic fevers have the possibility of transmission of disease from one person to another. The utilization of successful immunizations would prone to ensure lives and limit disease spread in a biological weapons emergency.

 At the point when antibodies are referenced the vast majority consider vaccination against childhood infectious diseases. Be that as it may, as of late the utilizations to which antibodies are being put have drastically extended past conventional irresistible sickness applications. Antibodies right now in preclinical and clinical improvement target avoidance or treatment of a wide scope of non-irresistible infections including malignant growth, hypersensitivity, asthma, diabetes, rheumatoid joint pain, lupus, hypertension, coronary illness, corpulence, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson’s disease and even nicotine and cocaine addiction.

If immune system mistakenly attacks your own body then it is called as autoimmune disease. Generally, the immune system protects body against bacteria and viruses. But in an autoimmune disease, the immune system releases autoantibodies that attack healthy cells in body. The most common autoimmune diseases are Rheumatoid arthritis, Psoriasis, Psoriatic arthritis, lupus, type 1 diabetes mellitus, Guillain Barre Syndrome, Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, Myasthenia gravis and Vasculitis.

Vaccination plays a major role in controlling the infectious diseases. Nowadays, attention has been directed towards using nanoparticles as delivery vehicles for vaccines. The vaccine is either encapsulated within or onto the surface of nanoparticles. Due to their size, stability and degradation rate nanoparticles have been proved efficient.